Tuesday, July 28, 2020

How to Recognize the Signs That Someone Is Lying

How to Recognize the Signs That Someone Is Lying Theories Social Psychology Print How to Recognize the Signs That Someone Is Lying By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on November 27, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW on November 27, 2019 JAG IMAGES / Getty Images More in Theories Social Psychology Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology Lying and deception are common human behaviors. Until relatively recently, there has been little actual research into just how often people lie. Some surveys have suggested that as many as 96% of people admit to lying at least sometimes. One national study of 1,000 U.S. adults found that 60% of respondents claimed that they did not lie at all.?? Instead, the researchers found that about half of all lies were told by just 5% of all the subjects. The study suggests that while prevalence rates may vary, there likely exists a small group of very prolific liars. The reality is that most  people lie from time to time. Some of these lies are little white lies intended to protect someone else’s feelings (“No, that shirt does not make you look fat!”). In other cases, these lies can be much more serious (like lying on a resume) or even sinister (covering up a crime).? Verywell / Brianna Gilmartin Lying Can Be Hard to Detect People are surprisingly bad at detecting lies. One study, for example, found that people were only able to accurately detect lying 54% of the time in a lab settingâ€"hardly impressive considering a 50% hit rate purely by chance alone.?? Other studies have shown that even trained investigators are remarkably poor at telling if someone is lying or telling the truth. Clearly, behavioral differences between honest and lying individuals are difficult to discriminate and measure. Researchers have attempted to uncover different ways of detecting lies. While there may not be a simple, tell-tale sign that  someone is dishonest  (like Pinocchio’s nose), researchers have found a few helpful indicators.? Like many things, though, detecting a lie often comes down to one thingâ€"trusting your instincts. By knowing what signs might accurately detect a lie and learning how to heed your own gut reactions, you may be able to become better at spotting falsehoods. Signs of Lying Psychologists have utilized research on body language and deception to help members of law enforcement distinguish between the truth and lies. Researchers at UCLA conducted studies on the subject in addition to analyzing 60 studies on deception in order to develop recommendations and training for law enforcement.?? The results of their research were published in the American Journal of Forensic Psychiatry. Red Flags That Someone May Be Lying A few of the potential red flags the researchers identified that might indicate that people are deceptive include:Being vague; offering few detailsRepeating questions before answering themSpeaking in sentence fragmentsFailing to provide specific details when a story is challengedGrooming behaviors such as playing with hair or pressing fingers to lips Lead researcher R. Edward Geiselman suggests that while detecting deception is never easy, quality training can improve a persons ability to detect lies: Without training, many people think they can detect deception, but their perceptions are unrelated to their actual ability. Quick, inadequate training sessions lead people to over-analyze and to do worse than if they go with their gut reactions. Tips for Identifying Lying If you suspect that someone might not be telling the truth, there are a few strategies you can use that might help distinguish fact from fiction. Dont Rely on Body Language Alone When it comes to detecting lies, people often focus on body language “tells,” or subtle physical and behavioral signs that reveal deception. While body language cues can sometimes hint at deception, research suggests that many of the most expected behaviors are not strongly associated with lying. Researcher Howard Ehrlichman, a psychologist who has been studying eye movements since the 1970s, has found that eye movements do not signify lying at all. In fact, he suggests that shifting eyes mean that a person is thinking, or more precisely, that he or she is accessing their long-term memory.?? Other studies have shown that while individual signals and behaviors are useful indicators of deception, some of the ones most often linked to lying (such as eye movements) are among the worst predictors. So while body language can be a useful tool in the detection of lies, the key is to understand which signals to pay attention to. Focus On the Right Signals One meta-analysis found that while people do often rely on valid cues for detecting lies, the problem might lie with the weakness of these cues as deception indicators in the first place.?? Some of the most accurate deception cues that people do pay attention to include: Being vague: If the speaker seems to intentionally leave out important details, it might be because they are lying.Vocal uncertainty: If the person seems unsure or insecure, they are more likely to be perceived as lying.Indifference: Shrugging, lack of expression, and a bored posture can be signs of lying since the person is trying to avoid conveying emotions and possible tells.Overthinking: If the individual seems to be thinking too hard to fill in the details of the story, it might be because they are deceiving you. The lesson here is that while body language may be helpful, it is important to pay attention to the right signals. Experts suggest that relying too heavily on such signals may impair the ability to detect lies. Ask Them to Tell Their Story in Reverse Lie detection is often seen as a passive process. People often assume that they can just observe the potential liar’s body language and facial expressions to spot obvious “tells.” While research has shown that this is a pretty bad way to detect lies, taking a more active approach to uncovering lies can yield better results.? Research suggests that asking people to report their stories in reverse order rather than chronological order can increase the accuracy of lie detection.?? Verbal and non-verbal cues that distinguish between lying and truth-telling may become more apparent as cognitive load increases. Lying is more mentally taxing than telling the truth. If you add even more cognitive complexity, behavioral cues may become more apparent. Not only is telling a lie more cognitively demanding, but liars typically exert much more mental energy toward monitoring their behaviors and evaluating the responses of others. They are concerned with their credibility and ensuring that other people believe their stories. All this takes a considerable amount of effort, so if you throw in a difficult task (like relating their story in reverse order), cracks in the story and behavioral tells might become easier to spot. In one study, 80 mock suspects either told the truth or lied about a staged event. Some of the individuals were asked to report their stories in reverse order while others simply told their stories in chronological order. The researchers found that the reverse order interviews revealed more behavioral clues to deception. In a second experiment, 55 police officers watched taped interviews from the first experiment and were asked to determine who was lying and who was not. The investigation revealed that law enforcement officers were better at detecting lies in the reverse order interviews than they were in the chronological interviews. Trust Your Instincts According to the results one study, your immediate gut reactions might be more accurate than any conscious lie detection you might attempt. In the study, researchers had 72 participants watch videos of interviews with mock crime suspects.?? Some of these suspects had stolen a $100 bill from off a bookshelf while others had not, yet all of the suspects were told to tell the interviewer that they had not taken the money. Similar to previous studies, the participants were pretty bad at detecting lies, only accurately identifying the liars 43% of the time and the truth-tellers 48% of the time. But the researchers also utilized implicit behavioral reaction time tests to assess the participants more automatic and unconscious responses to the suspects. What they discovered was that the subjects were more likely to unconsciously associate words like dishonest and deceitful with the suspects that were actually lying. They were also more likely to implicitly associate words like valid and honest with the truth-tellers. The results suggest that people may have an unconscious, intuitive idea about whether someone is lying. So if our gut reactions might be more accurate, why are people not better at identifying dishonesty? Conscious responses might interfere with our automatic associations. Instead of relying on our instincts, people focus on the stereotypical behaviors that they often associate with lying such as fidgeting and lack of eye contact. Overemphasizing behaviors that unreliably predict deceptions makes it more difficult to distinguish between truth and lies. A Word From Verywell The reality is that there is no universal, sure-fire sign that someone is lying. All of the signs, behaviors, and indicators that researchers have linked to lying are simply clues that might reveal whether a person is being forthright. Next time you are trying to gauge the veracity of an individuals story, stop looking at the clichéd “lying signs” and learn how to spot more subtle behaviors that might be linked to deception. When necessary, take a more active approach by adding pressure and make telling the lie more mentally taxing by asking the speaker to relate the story in reverse order. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, trust your instincts. You might have a great intuitive sense  of honesty versus dishonesty. Learn to heed those gut feelings.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Financial Literacy Key For Creating And Sustaining...

Financial Literacy: Key to Creating and Sustaining Wealth for African Americans By Martin A. Smith | Submitted On August 21, 2013 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Martin A. Smith Legacy planning is a lifelong endeavor that requires patience, discipline, a strong work ethic and proficiency when it comes to the subject of money and taxes. Being wealthy should not only be defined in numerical terms. Otherwise, what good does having a lot of money do for the people who are unable to enjoy it, because they are not in good physical or psychological health? For example, we have all heard about celebrity athletes who, despite having earned millions of dollars while playing professional sports, find themselves in bankruptcy. A myriad of problems may have led to their financial ruin: marital infidelity resulting in divorce, hefty alimony settlements, financial illiteracy, out-of-control spending, poor investment choices, getting swindled by unscrupulous business managers, etc. Therefore, being wealthy has to entail more than having millions of dollars. Ever hear of a person who won the Lotto, only to have nothing to show for it a few short years after winning? AccordingShow MoreRelatedAn Impact Assessment of Science and Technology Policy on National Development of Nigeria61708 Words   |  247 Pagescontribute to the policy process formulation and implementation of the Ministry. Also, I participated in various local and international fora for ST development including those organized by Nigerian Academy of Science, African Academy of Science, Third World Academy of Science, African Technology Policy Studies (ATPS), WAITRO, the G-15 and G.77 among others. These opportunities would not have been possible without the prime role played in my Civil Service Career by the one-time Secretary to GovernmentRead MoreUnited Arab of Emirates Country Notebook18844 Words   |  76 PagesBedouins with small oasis farming within the broader context of the desert economy and culture, and the sea-oriented culture that revolved around pearling and sea trading. These subcultures were economically, politically, and socially interdependent, creating a common culture and social identity. The UAE shares significant aspects of its culture with neighboring Arab countries and the larger Arab culture. II- Geographical Setting: A- Location The UAE is situated in the Southeast of the Arabian PeninsulaRead MoreUnited Arab of Emirates Country Notebook18844 Words   |  76 PagesBedouins with small oasis farming within the broader context of the desert economy and culture, and the sea-oriented culture that revolved around pearling and sea trading. These subcultures were economically, politically, and socially interdependent, creating a common culture and social identity. The UAE shares significant aspects of its culture with neighboring Arab countries and the larger Arab culture. II- Geographical Setting: A- Location The UAE is situated in the Southeast of the Arabian PeninsulaRead MoreI Love Reading Essay69689 Words   |  279 Pagesof Andhra Pradesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FAPCCI) in Hyderabad and Ms. Usha Nagaraj at Federation of Karnataka Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FKCCI) in Bangalore. 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Saturday, May 9, 2020

Historical Background of Labor Unions and Leaders Essay

Introduction The history of labor unions dates back the late 1700’s. Without strong leadership, workers were rarely able to improve their wages or working conditions. However, as effective leaders began to emerge, labor became a force demanding to be recognized by business and the government. Change came slowly, but through the efforts of some forward-thinking union leaders, a great deal of change in the world of labor was finally achieved. Historical Legal Status of Unions Trace the evolution of the legal status of American unions. What activities were restricted by laws and courts? Did constraints increase or decline with time? Early organized labor had no support from the government and was frequently eliminated by legislation and†¦show more content†¦Anti-union constraints were further eased with the passage of the Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932 which limited injunctions and allowed collective bargaining (Fossum, 2012). However, this act did not require recognition of unions by employers. The Wagner Act, also known as the National Labor Relations Act, of 1935 addressed unfair labor practices, provided private sector employees with the right to organize and collectively bargain using representatives, and protected employees against discrimination for engaging in union activities (Fossum, 2012). This government support greatly increased union membership and influence. However, as economic depression and World War II broke out, increased strikes by organized labor demanding increased wages resulted in Congress again making striking and lockouts a criminal offense (Fossum, 2012). The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 amended the Wagner Act by defining unfair union practices, giving employees the right to not join unions, and allowing court injunctions to stop strikes which violated the nation’s interests (Colorado State University-Global Campus, 2013). This Act established mediation procedures to resolve labor disputes and promoted more widespread acceptance of unions by employers and more reasonable, longer-term contracts which benefited both labor andShow MoreRelatedNothing From The Korean War On North Korea1399 Words   |  6 Pagesnovel,Nothing to Envy: Ordinary lives in North Korea, tells the stories of six North Korean citizens from Chongjin, third largest city in Democratic People s Republic of Korea. After the Korean War in the 60th, the aid from Communist China and Soviet Union caused industrial growth in North Korea. During this time the daughter of a South Korean Prisoner of War described the hardships she faces as a citizen with tainted blood. The gap in social status leaves a couple to hide their relationship in theRead MoreUnderstanding Labor Relations And Collective Bargaining1019 Words   |  5 PagesUnderstanding Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining In the video, â€Å"Understanding Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining†, Donald Carty, CEO of American Airlines at that time, expresses the disappointment of the many executives in a union environment face in regards to labor costs. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Globalization Is Good Free Essays

string(166) " of globalization is the peace of the world–all countries becoming accepting of one another and the diversity of cultures and beliefs that exists in the world\." Globalization is a term used to describe the political, economic and cultural climate of today’s world. Some say it is the movement of people, language, ideas, and products around the world. Others see it as the dominance of multinational corporations and the destruction of cultural identities. We will write a custom essay sample on Globalization Is Good or any similar topic only for you Order Now Since the dawn of man, economies have been changing and expanding, but most importantly, converging. In recent years, although economic convergence has been occurring for ages, this idea has become a hot topic of political and economic debate.However one chooses to describe it, globalization is surrounded with controversy. With a discussion on globalization comes a set of competing views. Is globalization a force for economic growth, prosperity, and democratic freedom? Or is it a force for environmental devastation, exploitation of the developing world, and suppression of human rights? These two different views will be covered in this essay. The paper is divided into three different sections: the first one depicts the advantages of globalization. The second section provides a discussion about the treats or short-comings brought by globalization.The last part will explore the myths about globalization. 2 Globalization is a positive trend 2. 1Globalization’s Benefits for the World As we move further and further into the twenty-first century, the more clearly we are seeing the advantages of globalization. It has unlimited economic, technical, social and cultural benefits for developing countries. Globalization can mean sharing technological know-how, such as better methods of farming, or it can mean building roads or a dam to give people access to clean water or electricity. In a statistical analysis, globalization proves to have many advantages.During the 20th century global per capita GDP increased almost fivefold, the flow of private capital sharply increased, and technological innovation occurred. These are the factors of globalization and also the factors that sustain and improve standard of living. Standard of living is the most accurate measurement of a nation’s well-being. From 1960 to 1999, the infant mortality rate in Mexico dropped from 93 to 29. The life expectancy for the Chinese citizen increased from average 36 to 70 years.Even the countries of sub-Saharan Africa made improvements in infant mortality, life expectancy, and adult literacy. Everyone gains from globalization. The advantages of globalization also can be seen in the internet. Now, it is possible to have global communication. Someone in Africa can talk to someone in Canada in real time. Or, someone in the United States can email a friend in India and have it arrive in their mailbox in less than one minute. The transmission of information over the internet is making people who live in underdeveloped countries aware of what is possible.The advantages of globalization mean that news is transmitted around the world as it happens. It is a lot harder to keep people in the dark about events happens in the rest of the world. The advantages of globalization on the international economy are substantial. Countries can invest in one another, loan money to one another, and develop trade with other countries. Businessmen can sell their goods in new foreign markets. The more goods that are sold, the more jobs are created. Even in economic difficulties, the world is a better place because the global market is more open and free.The movement of freedom and democracy is another one of the advantages of globalization. The world is becoming closer; all human beings share the earth with one another. It brings about cooperation in trying to make the earth a better place to live. The ultimate goal of globalization is the peace of the world–all countries becoming accepting of one another and the diversity of cultures and beliefs that exists in the world. You read "Globalization Is Good" in category "Papers" Globalization can go beyond economic concerns to address such other issues as the environment.Whether it be disappearing forests, global warming, fishing laws, or helping to save endangered species of animals, people working together in a global way can have far-reaching consequences. 2. 2 The Shortcomings of Protectionism The shortcomings of protectionism can be highlighted through the basic and logical principles of free trade and comparative advantage. Comparative advantage is the idea that two parties are both better off by specializing in the production of the product that they can produce for a comparatively cheaper opportunity cost and then trading at a rate which brings surplus to both parties.For example, the United States has a comparative advantage in producing services and highly skilled labor activities; therefore, the U. S. should produce highly skilled services and import other goods and services from nations that can produce them more cheaply. It is difficult to accept the fact that manufacturing, agricultural, and other such jobs will leave the United States and go to India, China, Russia, etc. , but one must recognize that the United States economy as a whole benefits.Comparative advantage admits to the protectionists that a few jobs are lost, but different jobs are created and the economic well-being is improved. Trade, free from tariffs, extends a nation’s surplus. Exporting and importing both have the power to hurt and benefit consumers and producers, but both yield a greater total surplus. For example, the U. S. may import bananas from Brazil because Brazilian bananas are a cheaper price than U. S. domestic bananas. At the new price, consumers gain a considerable area of surplus and producers lose some, but the total magnitude of surplus increases.When countries implement tariffs and anti-globalizing and protectionist policies, they suffer an efficiency loss, as well as a smaller surplus than trade without barriers. Brazilian producers, without tariff, enjoy a large increase in surplus, while the country’s domestic consumers do have a small loss. Comparative advantage and trade keep economic growth. Without economic growth, the United States would lose its power on the global playing field and its standard of living. 3 Globalization is a threat to the developing countries 3. 1 The Increasing Number of UnemployedThe most important disadvantage of globalization is the increasing number of the unemployed. After the industrial revolution, some countries became a power in industry. However production decreased and so unemployment was raised in the other countries. Another reason of the unemployment rise is that the need of less manpower. Many workers found themselves suddenly unemployed, as could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited work to produce more product than a single worker. 3. 2 Cultural invasion Another major damage of globalization is that some cultures are getting lost.The cultures of the countries that have more economic power are more dominant than others. Because, wealthy countries produce many things that can affect cultures, for example, clothes, movies and technologic products. While the global community is increasing, more and more people have became ignorant about social, ethical and moral values which are various in certain groups. Therefore, globalization damages small cultures which are in risk of being extinct. 3. 2 difficulty of competition The final significant effect of globalization is the difficulty of competition. With globalization, trade between the countries has been started to remove limits. Enterprises have prepared the ground to be in constant competition with not only national competitors but also international competitors. Therefore, business requires being in a more rigorous and challenging competitive atmosphere to maintain continuity and development. Rising of monopole companies and trough among production costs are the main effects of this hard competition in business. Undeveloped countries choose to use foreign capital for their improvement however it disposes the equality and stability instead. . 3 Unparalleled Growth and Inequality in Economy and Society It must be recognized that there is great opposition to globalization due to the fact that some of the data points to globalization as a force which allows for unparalleled growth and inequality economically and socially. Globalization, as an impeller of capitalization, threatens the growth and prosperity of developing nations. The idea that â€Å"the faster poor countries open their economic boarders and deregulate their markets, the faster they’ll experience the benefits of economic growth† is open to criticism. Hodari, 2002) The link between poverty and globalization is evident by the widening gap between the privileged elite and the deprived masses. â€Å"The world’s 497 billionaires in 2001 have a combined wealth of $1. 54 trillion, well over the combined gross national products of all the nations of sub-Saharan Africa ($929. 3 billion) or those of the oil-rich regions of the Middle East and North Africa ($1. 34 trillion). It is also greater than the combined incomes of the poorest half of human. †(Shah, 2005) The increase in the gap between the classes has been widening for a long time.The IMF reports that the most recent World Economic Outlook studied 42 countries, representing almost 90 percent of world population, for which data are available for the entire 20 century. It reached the conclusion that output per capita has risen a little bit but that the distribution of income among countries has become more unequal than at the beginning of the century. One reason that globalization is often blamed for the growing inequity in wealth distribution is that debt repayment in developing countries has been linked to poverty.Institutions like The IMF and the World Bank lend money to less developed countries under the condition that the countries adjust policies and cut social expenditures. â€Å"The developing countries now spend $13 for every $1 it receives in grants†. (Shah, 2005) In addition, LCD’s accept development aid in exchange for policy intervention. The developed nations institute policies which open free markets and trade in the LDC, the imports brought into the country often lead to the decline in the export of primary commodities. The 48 poorest countries account for less than 0. 4 per cent of global exports. †(Shah, 2005)These circumstances have increased poverty in many developing countries. 4 Myths about globalization No discussion of globalization would be complete without remove some of the myths that have been built up around it: Globalization has not caused the world’s multinational corporations to simply search the globe for the lowest-paid laborers.There are numerous factors that enter into corporate decisions on where to produce products, including the supply of skilled labor, economic and political stability, the local infrastructure, the quality of institutions, and the overall business climate. In an open global market, while jurisdictions do compete with each other to attract investment, this competition incorporates factors well beyond just the wage level. According to the UN Information Service, the developed world has two-thirds of the world’s inward FDI.The 49 least developed countries account for around 2 percent of the total inward FDI stock of developing countries. Nor is it true that multinational corporations make a consistent practice of operating sweatshops in low-wage countries, with poor working conditions and low wages. While isolated examples of this can surely be uncovered, because multinationals, on average, pay higher wages than what is standard in developing nations, and offer higher labor standards. Globalization is irreversible: In the long run, globalization is likely to be an unrelenting henomenon. But for significant periods of time, its momentum can be hindered by a variety of factors, ranging from political will to availability of infrastr ucture. Indeed, the world was thought to be on an irreversible path toward peace and prosperity in the early 20th century, until the outbreak of Word War I. That war, coupled with the Great Depression, and then World War II, dramatically set back global economic integration. That fragility of nearly a century ago still exists today—as we saw in the aftermath of September 11th, when U.S. air travel came to a pause, financial markets shut down, and the economy weakened. These episodes are reminders that a breakdown in globalization—meaning a slowdown in the global flows of goods, services, capital, and people—can have extremely adverse consequences. Openness to globalization will, on its own, deliver economic growth: Integrating with the global economy is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for economic growth. For globalization to be able to work, a country cannot be saddled with problems provincial to many developing countries, from a corrupt political class, to poor infrastructure, and macroeconomic instability. 5 Conclusion As globalization has progressed, living conditions have improved significantly in virtually all countries. However, the strongest gains have been made by the advanced countries and only some of the developing countries. The income gap between high-income and low-income countries has grown wider is a matter for concern.And the number of the world’s citizens in poverty is deeply disturbing. But it is wrong to draw the conclusion that globalization has caused the divergence, or nothing can be done to improve the situation. To the contrary: low-income countries have not been able to integrate with the global economy as quickly as others, partly because of their chosen policies and partly because of factors outside their control. No country can afford to remain isolated from the world economy. Every country should seek to reduce poverty.The international community should endeavor by strengthening the international financial system, through trade, and through aid to help the poorest countries integrate into the world economy, grow more rapidly, and reduce poverty. That is the way to ensure all people in all countries have access to the benefits of globalization. How to cite Globalization Is Good, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

To Kill a Mockingbird Essay free essay sample

Prejudice towards different people is a huge part of Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird novel. Nearly every little mishap in the book has been somehow linked or caused by prejudice. Naturally, the town of Maycomb is affected by it, and the effect isn’t for the best. Prejudice is a destructive force in Maycomb, bringing nothing to the town. The cause of Maycomb being destroyed is prejudice spreading hatred throughout the town, separating the people, and excluding and enabling members of the town to fully get what they need. There is a lot of hatred spread throughout Maycomb County. The town is filled with prejudice people spreading their prejudice ways to other people, or to the younger generations. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout comes home from school with racist language on her tongue, and hate for a kid in her class. Even though her father, Atticus, tries to teach his kids that being prejudice is bad, Scout picks it up anyway, from her other social activities. We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill a Mockingbird Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Another example is Francis, Jem and Scout’s cousin. His grandmother, known as Aunt Alexandra, is extremely prejudiced against black, poor, and weird people. This is a trait she has obviously spread to her grandson, and it is proven when he calls Atticus a ‘black-person lover’, tempting Scout to punch him. The third example from To Kill a Mockingbird is how Bob Ewell spits in Atticus’s face because Atticus was defending Tom, a convicted black man. Atticus was just doing his job as a lawyer, but since Bob Ewell is a prejudiced man, he felt the need to tell Atticus his place in the world, and in his mind, it’s not among the black people. All these people are consumed by hate by what the older, or other generation has burned into their brains, that it’s right to treat people based on what they look like, or believe in. Prejudice is also a destructive force because it physically and mentally separates the people of Maycomb. There are ‘groups’ in Maycomb, which are marked by one or more trait that all of the members of the group have similarly. In To Kill a Mockingbird, the people of Maycomb have two types of churches; a black-person church, and a white-person church. When Scout and Jem are taken to Calpurnia’s black-only church, it’s a surprise for all of the members of the church. At first the people react in an unpleasant way to their arrival, but then they get used to the idea of white people in their church. Another example is how the Ewells are separated from the rest of Maycomb. The Ewells are very economically unstable, so they live behind the town dump, isolated from the rest of the town. Dolphus Raymond and his family are another example of isolated residents of Maycomb. Dolphus Raymond is a white man, who is married to a black woman. In Maycomb, that is an unspeakable scandal, because blacks and whites aren’t supposed to mix. He and his kids and wife are separated from the rest of society because they are different. Jem calls Raymond’s half-white-half-black kids sad because they don’t belong anywhere. The white people don’t want to have anything to do with them because they are black, and the blacks don’t want them because they’re white. These groups are divided by thin but defined lines and people aren’t encouraged to cross them. This causes separation and it leads to the town being divided into multiple groups, all because of prejudice. Being excluded or not being able to get what you need because of prejudice is another reason why it’s a destructive force in Maycomb. The groups of people in Maycomb rarely allow different people to interact with each other. Sometimes, people get excluded because of the colour of their skin, or by the amount of money they carry in their pockets. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Helen Robinson, the wife of the convicted black man, can’t find a job after her husband gets accused of rape. She needed to support her family by getting a job, but nobody wanted to employ her because of what her husband was rumored to have done. Prejudice against Tom Robinson lead to his wife and kids not being able to get what they needed. Another example of exclusion in To Kill a Mockingbird is when Aunt Alexandra wouldn’t let Scout play with Walter Cunningham because he was poor. She says that his family is different from the Finches, and that he wasn’t as good as them. She also places certain families of Maycomb into groups that exclude the rest of the town from their activities. An example of this is when she ways that all Penfield women are flighty, after a Penfield girl giggled during church. According to her, all Maycomb families have a streak of their own, and that places them into their own groups. This lead s to exclusion from various other groups, because people don’t think you belong with them, and not being able to get what you want. If a person can’t feed their kids or support themselves, they can’t lead a good life. In all forms of prejudice, whether its racism, sexism, or ageism, it brings no good to Maycomb County, and is a destructive force to the small town. The town of Maycomb is the discriminating way it is because of prejudice people spreading hatred throughout the town, separating the people, and excluding and enabling citizens of the town to fully get what they need. Mainly all of the problems in the novel are caused by prejudice, and slowly but surely, the people of the town will have to see the effects of their ways, and their town will destruct if the prejudice people don’t change. To Kill a Mockingbird Essay free essay sample In To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee demonstrates through characters of various background that maturation can lead one to develop just morals if he or she is exposed to the right type of environment. Scout and Jem Finch are able to develop a sense of empathy, selflessness, and honesty because they are raised by Atticus and are exposed to people in their family who exhibit these traits. Scout’s character is shaped by maturation as the novel progresses, she initially is a girl characterized as somewhat bratty and uncompassionate. However, with the counsel of Atticus who tells her, â€Å"You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view Until you climb inside of his skin and walk around in it’ † (Lee 30). Scout gains an improved sense of empathy once she has matured a few years. Being the daughter of an intelligent man, such as Atticus, serves Scout well in developing values. We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill a Mockingbird Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Atticus is not the only one in her family who affects Scout with his display of empathy, maturity, and fairness; her Uncle Jack has equally righteous standards. As a young child who picks up what she hears, Scout catches a habit of swearing unnecessarily. Scout doesn’t realize that it is immature to use swear words at inappropriate times. â€Å"But at supper that evening when I asked him to pass the damn ham, please, Uncle Jack pointed at me. ‘See me afterwards, young lady,’ he said† (Lee 79). Scout is surrounded by the guidance of mature adults who can teach her better and Uncle Jack’s guidance causes Scout to understand that it’s improper to use profanities casually. Scout receives appropriate counsel because she is exposed to mature adults who teach her valuable principles. Like Scout, Jem Finch is able to learn moral lessons from the people who guide him. As a nine year-old boy in the beginning of the novel, Jem’s perception of courage is simplistic and naive. He perceives bravery to be accepting dares and having the guts to do daring deeds. As demonstrated by Scout’s observations, â€Å"In all his life, Jem had never declined a dare† (Lee 13). However, through various lessons about what it means to be courageous, Atticus teaches him the meaning of moral bravery. Atticus says to his son â€Å"I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. Its when you know youre licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and see it through no matter what† (Lee 112). Jem is able to learn what it truly means to be brave through the exposure to his father who manifests values of bravery, strength, and integrity. Being raised in the right kind of society allows one to develop strong values through maturation. A prime example of the negative effect that maturation has on those who are not raised in an environment of love, maturity, and happiness are the Ewell family. The Ewell’s are â€Å"the disgrace of Maycomb for three generations† who are looked at as the black sheep of Maycomb county because â€Å"none of them had done an honest day’s work in [Atticus’s] recollection† (Lee 30). Those raised in the background of the Ewell family â€Å"[are] people, but [live] like animals† and are not exposed to decent people, habits, or values. The Ewells are adamant to adapt to the standards of Maycomb’s society. â€Å" ‘There are ways of keeping them in school by force, but it’s silly to force people like the Ewells into a new environment—’† (Lee 30). The Ewells display closed-mindedness by not willing to attend school for a change, which portrays them as immature people. One instance in which the Ewells demonstrate bad character is when Mayella Ewell accuses Tom Robinson, an innocent man, of rape. In actuality, Mayella is the one who was seducing Tom. As a result, Mayella’s father beats her, and uses her injuries from the beatings as false evidence that Tom sexually assaulted her. Mayella’s actions are laced with dishonesty, selfishness, and a lack of empathy; her father’s are no better, revealing bigotry, prejudice, and selfishness. Mayella was not raised in a proper environment in which she could have been given the guidance to teach her the importance of honesty and other virtues, making her an unpleasant being. One’s surroundings play a large role in the ethics he or she develops. Atticus Finch is able to influence Scout and Jem in such a way that he teaches them values such as empathy, honesty, and bravery because he himself comes from a background of intelligence and moral education. Atticus chose of his own will to defend Tom Robinson in Mayella’s case when nobody else was willing to defend him because â€Å"If [he] didn’t [he] couldn’t hold up [his] head in town, [he] couldn’t represent this county in the legislature, [he] couldn’t even tell [Scout] or Jem not to do something again he]† (Lee 75). Atticus’s decision to defend Tom derived from his passion for empathy and equality. Scout and Jem are able to take after Atticus’s traits from being raised by him. Harper Lee demonstrates in To Kill a Mockingbird, using three characters that are raised in different backgrounds that maturation may teach people principles such as empathy, fairness, and nobility if they are brought about in an ethical community. Being exposed to the correct kind of environment allows one to develop good habits in life and general moral values. Guidance is important in the process of growing up because it sets examples for those who are growing, who take after what they are taught in life. The people around us shape our qualities, affecting what kind of people we will become. Who we are depends on our surroundings, which is eventually who we become. The morals we develop depend on the environment we are in throughout maturation. To Kill a Mockingbird Essay free essay sample To kill a Mockingbird Discrimination is a topic many authors have focused on for a long time. It has been the basis of many arguments, and has been around for thousands of years. Prejudice still currently affects our society today. In Harper Lee’s book, To Kill A Mockingbird, prejudice is evident in the form of social, and racial discrimination through the characters of Scout, Atticus, and Tom and some other characters in the novel. The most prominent form of racial discrimination in the book is Tom’s trial. Tom, a black male, was wrongly accused of raping Mayella Ewell. Bob Ewell comes up with this story to convince the jury that Tom is guilty, and to cover his tracks of domestic abuse. Mayella Ewell was attacked by a person who is left handed, and Tom’s left hand was crippled by an accident with a cotton gin. Although Tom had a reason for being perfectly innocent, the jury sentenced him just because it was a white woman’s words over a black male’s. We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill a Mockingbird Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Using the example above, one finds that black men are at the lowest part of the totem pole. Page 226 says â€Å"There’s four kinds of folks in the world. There’s the ordinary kind like us and the neighbors, there’s the kind like the Cunninghams out in the woods, the kind like the Ewells down at the dump, and the Negroes. † Women in this time were also discriminated against. Scout is reprimanded for being a tom boy. She is told by her aunt several times that she couldn’t be a woman if she wore breeches. Her aunt also reckons that Scout should participate in feminine activities such as: playing with stoves, tea sets, and necklaces. Atticus Finch, Scouts Dad, also somewhat discriminates against women. Page 221 voices Atticus telling Jem women are not to serve on a jury. Dill explains to Scout that if girls did something that normally only boys do, she is going to be slandered for it. Scout being a tomboy is socially against the rules of this time. Discrimination will continue to be present for a long time. The novel gives hope for the future, and that there will be no more prejudice in the modern and future world. Many characters of Maycomb want to change the views of the prejudiced townsfolk, even though discrimination is a difficult force to defeat. People who have read this novel are sure to become aware of things, such as prejudice, happening all around them. To Kill a Mockingbird Essay free essay sample The novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee has caused several controversies. Many school systems have banned this novel from reading due to the harsh content while other schools have not. This novel should not be banned from Stafford County school systems. To Kill a Mockingbird exposes readers to the reality of American history, teaches students valuable life lessons, it is a highly entertaining novel, and our right to freedom of press in the First Amendment. Many believe To Kill a Mockingbird should be banned in school systems, but this novel exposes readers to the reality of American history. Whether society wants to believe it or not, the events in this book did happen more than we would have liked. For example, Tom Robinson’s trial, Tom was innocent, but the jury tried him as guilty because of the color of his skin. Situations like the trial happened many times in history and this novel perhaps helps us to understand why. We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill a Mockingbird Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The novel also explains what society thought of mixed children or interracial couples. Though this novel uses profaned language, it emphasizes the harshness of the past and allows readers a view into a part of American history that readers will not want to repeat. To Kill a Mockingbird does not only teach about history, it also teaches students valuable life lessons. In this novel, Atticus Finch teaches Scout the valuable lesson of not judging someone until you’ve walked in their shoes. Not only does the story line mention Atticus explaining this lesson to Scout, it grows on that idea and shows how Scout applies it to her life situations. While reading about Scout applying this lesson, it gets readers to think how they could apply it to their own lives. The lesson is a very commonly heard one, but Harper Lee writes it in a way that readers will never forget. Harper Lee made To Kill a Mockingbird a highly entertaining novel. Throughout the story there are laughable moments. This novel doesn’t only have enjoyable moments like Jem showing Scout his â€Å"chest hair†, but it also has moments with great suspense such as Jem’s pants getting caught on the Radley’s fence. Harper Lee has impressive writing skills, she was able to compact the feelings of suspense, comedy, anger, sadness, and many more all into one novel. No student should ever miss out on such a fantastically written book because their school is apprehensive on exposing students to entertainment. Lastly, School systems should not ban To Kill a Mockingbird because of our right to Freedom of the Press in the First Amendment. The meaning of Freedom of the Press means the right to write freely, however why write something if it will not be read by an audience it is meant for? A current controversy is it appropriate to judge a book written in a different era based on the standards of today’s society? That being said, most school systems ban our rights of reading what was freely written because they believe banning it will protect students from the racial past. What the school systems do not realize is, they are cutting students off from learning the truth and if we do not learn from history, are we doomed to repeat it? The banning of this novel is pure ignorance. To Kill a Mockingbird should not be banned form Stafford County school systems. This novel allows students to learn an important part of history, and it teaches them unforgettable life values. To Kill a Mockingbird is a great source of entertainment and banning it will go against historical rights. Racial comments, bigotry, and events did happen in history. Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird is able to explain the racial depths of the past with realistic situations. Everyone should have a chance to read, discuss, and understand this novel in a school environment.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Consider David Starkeys and Francis Pryors respective versions Essays

Consider David Starkeys and Francis Pryors respective versions Essays Consider David Starkeys and Francis Pryors respective versions Essay Consider David Starkeys and Francis Pryors respective versions Essay Essay Topic: Burial Rites There is considerable speculation over the events of this period depending on the background of the Historian or Archaeologist and on the sources they depend upon. Therefore it comes as no surprise that there is such a stark contrast between the interpretations of Starkey and Pryor regarding the events following the fall of Roman administration in 410. Starkey argues a full blown invasion by Germanic tribes as described by Bede and Gildas. This was ethnic cleansing at its most savagely effective. Pryor on the other hand believes in continuity, that life went on just as it had during and even before the Romans. He argues that rather than the invasion force there were a few economic migrants. In this scenario, life went on as it did during Roman times and the only change was this cultural exchange.When one looks beyond Starkey and Pryor and at other historians (and archaeologists) you find that there seem to be four distinct possibilities for what happened after Romans left Britain. Th e first is migration; under this interpretation the country was flooded by economic migrants from the Germanic tribes who had been displaced by pressure from the Huns who were rapidly advancing through Germany. After a couple of generations the different ethnicities would have mixed significantly to cr4eate a single culture which would have been predominately Anglo Saxon due to the lack of any clearly defined culture left after the falling Roman Empire. The second theory is invasion again by Germanic tribes. In this interpretation there would be masses of Angles and Saxons who arrived by boat and started a violent conquest of the new lands. Initially they might have been invited in by the Britons as mercenaries, and these then sent back for more men before uprising against their masters, or they could have arrived independent of the locals knowledge.The third theory is that Britain was conquered by a small Germanic Elite. This would not be the massive invasion army which is suggest ed by the invasion theory but rather a group of nobles with the aid of their War bands. With their noble ranking they would not just subjugate the country through the use of their war bands but also by manipulating the political scene and playing an active part in politics within the rapidly declining towns. The last theory is simply cultural exchange. Under this theory, there was little migration; but rather the Romano British with a limited cultural exposure left after the departure of the Romans in 410 imported different elements of Germanic culture while forming new trading partners (with Germanic tribes).When one looks generally at the way in which different people approach the problem of determining what happened in this period you can usually split it into two camps. The historians tend to rely amuch more on the written evidence (which in this period is nearly non existent except for Gildas and there are serious questions about the reliability of all written documents in thi s period), while the Archaeologists looks at the archaeology and the other modern investigative techniques. However, while these might be much more reliable, they can only suggest possibilities for what happened. What few have failed to grasp in that the only way to approach this problem is to use both and see where they compliment and contradict each other and try and build a picture from then onwards.There are a number of different interpretations of the Roman to Anglo Saxon transition. The establishment view is that Roman Britain wound down slowly between 400 and 500. Roman culture is in decline from c.360 and has no presence after 450. Anglo Saxons dominate the country during the 5th Century having migrated from Holland, Northern Germany and Denmark and colonise eastern parts of England. Tradition suggests that Hengest and Horsa were invited over by Vortigen to fight against the Picts. The Britons and returned to a Celtic Iron Age way of life similar to the Anglo Saxons. They l ived in warring tribal Kingdoms and around 550 they start to make progress through the west. Richard Reece based his interpretations from excavations in Cirencester. His view was that Roman Britain was in decline during the 3rd Century and by 400 most of the Roman institutions had disappeared and that the towns were merely administrative centres. He argues that there were no mass migrations of Anglo Saxons but Anglo Saxon fashion became popular in 5th Century eastern England.The Discontinuity view suggests that Roman Britain flourished until c. AD 400, but then dramatically collapsed and nothing was left of the old Roman system after 430. Pagan Anglo Saxons then migrated into Eastern England, but in lesser numbers than thought previously. Both Britons and Anglo Saxons were ruled by Kings who were in a knock out competition for tribal dominance. Anglo Saxons eventually prevailed and gradually spread their culture and language throughout the rest of the country. Nicholas Highams view is similar to this view. However; the Britons survive using Roman institutions into the 5th Century. Britain is divided into two zones: 1) the highly Romanized Christian elite in the east and 2) A pagan, un Romanized upper class in the west. During the early 5th Century, defence of the east depended upon the use of Anglo Saxon mercenaries. These rebelled and the Western kingdoms became subordinate to the Anglo Saxons before AD 500. Anglo Saxon culture was adopted by the Britons and the Anglo Saxons retained elements of the Roman Administration.There is evidence for Anglo Saxon pressure on the Islands before 400, with a major raid (or even an invasion attempt) around 367. This is known as the Barbarian conspiracy as during this time, Britain came under attack from all sides the Saxons from the East, the Picts from the North and the Irish from the West. Around 383 a group of fortifications were built along the Yorkshire coast. All this continues to demonstrate the pressures and at least the reality of the threat of invasion by Anglo Saxon. Zosimus writes that in 410 there was a major Barbarian invasion of Gaul and says The Barbarians from beyond the Rhine, ravaging everything at pleasure, compelled both the inhabitants of the British Isle and some of the peoples of Gaul to secede from the Empire of the Romans and to live independent of them, no longer obeying the Roman Laws. This fits in with the discontinuity interpretation.It also continues to agree with the war like nature of the Germanic tribes as written about by Caesar and Tacitus. It is a matter of the greatest glory to the tribes to lay waste, as widely as possible, the lands bordering their territory, thus making them uninhabitable. They regard it as the best proof of their valour that their neighbours are forced to withdraw from those lands and hardly anyone dares set foot there1 Tacitus echoes these sentiments. Therefore one would expect if any migration were to take place then it would have a l argely violent nature to it, rather than the peaceful migration which post revisionist historians have suggested.Due to the fact that Gildas is one of the few sources in this period any mistakes in this source are likely to be replicated or even exaggerated in further sources, as is suspected in Bede and the Anglo Saxon Chronicle (A.S.C) (although there were other sources used for the Chronicle than Gildas). However, using these sources can give us a rough framework for what might have happened during this period, and thus we can identify a number of key stages. By looking at these alongside the modern techniques and the archaeology we can get a fairly accurate picture of what could have happened. Henson has done a good start with this book The origins of the Anglo Saxons in which he has collated all the data from Gildas, Bede and the A.S.C. This information is used below to lay out a rough idea of what happened during that period.In 410, Roman Soldiers left Britain due to pressure s affecting Rome itself. After several Saxon raids and increasing pressure from the Picts and the Scots (and with the refusal of any help from Rome) it was decided to hire Germanic mercenaries in 428. In 430, Hengest returned to Britain with his Son Octa and more mercenaries to defend the north from the Picts. Hengest married his Daughter off to Vortigern in return for Kent. Around 433, Diplomacy breaks down between the Britons and Hengest, resulting in a war. In 435 0 all German mercenaries under Hengest were expelled and returned to Germany. Around 444 Amrbosius takes over the leadership of the fight against the Saxons.Aurelianus became leader for 32 years. After his death, his brother Uther succeeded him and fought a further war with Octa and defeats him at Verulamium between 488 and 491. In 495 Arthur (The mythical status of Arthur is disputed however it appears that there was some sort of successful leader around this time who is referred to as Arthur) succeeded his father and continued the fight leading to a decisive victory over the Saxons at Badon Hill around 499. This led to a stop in the Anglo Saxon advance, and was the last country wide native poltical ruler. After Arthurs death, the Anglo Saxons began to return in around 527 (possibly invited by some of the British Tribes) and began winning battles against the British (who were suffering more from plagues than the Anglo Saxons were). For the next 100 years there is continued fighting between the British and the Anglo Saxons, with the Saxons gradually creeping west through the country. According to the A.S.C this expansion began in around 550.Although a general picture, we can identify four main stages. The first is from 400 to 440, 446 being around the time when the rebellion against the Britons began by German Mercenaries (Henson places this 13 years earlier due to the difference between the calendars in use by Gildas). The continuing fight is the second stage spanning from the start of the rebell ion in 440 to the Battle of Badon in around 500. The third stage is that of British rule up to around 550 when the Anglo Saxons begin to expand throughout the country. The last stage is continued expansion throughout the country. There were regional variations as one would expect considering the size of the country and the variety of society in this area.The fundamental different traditions in burial between Anglo Saxons and Britons mean that it is very easy to identify the differences and with the use of Radio Carbon Dating one can plot the changing fashions around the country. Taylor states New burial customs are a highly visible element in the early history of Anglo Saxon England, the change from late Roman graves being as distinctive as any of the upheavals brought about by the ending of the Roman Empire.2 It can be seen that as time goes on, burial rites change.Initially we see the introduction of Anglo Saxon tradition as seen by the presence of grave goods or cremation (which would not be present in Christian Romano British graves) and the gradual spreading of these tradition westwards following the Saxons as they spread throughout the country. Heinrich Harke suggests that many Britons survived the initial entry of the Anglo Saxons and instead were integrated into Anglo Saxon society. In his article Finding Britons in Anglo Saxon graves he gives evidence to suggest that the reason that many archaeologists cant find British graves, is because they are actually buried in Anglo Saxon settlements and cemeteries. This could suggest that the Anglo Saxons effectively subdued these areas with quicker speed than suggested and the Britons then served as slaves or workers.However, it could also suggest peaceful co existence between the two races. As time goes on, Anglo Saxon style burials become more frequent until the time of the Anglo Saxon conversion to Christianity. When one compares Anglo Saxon pottery from eastern England and from Schleswig Holstein and Lower Saxony, there are striking similarities in style, shape and size. These indicate at the very least cultural exchange and some sort of trading. However when one looks at the data collated on the number of finds of such pottery and on products such as amber (which is native to the areas where Anglo Saxons and Jutes would have resided before coming to Britain), the scale of the area and the number of finds suggest much more than mere trading but rather a movement in people into Eastern England and then further a field. Settlement evidence suggests a complete break in building traditions.Some use of pre-existing Roman foundations has been found like in Wroxeter but on the whole settlements were of a completely different style to anything seen in Britain previously. This again reaffirms the suggestion that Anglo Saxons migrated into England but not entirely in what fashion. West Heslerton is very suggestive of the nature of the relationship between Anglo Saxons and the locals. The fact that there do not appear to be any form of defence around the settlement can either show that the Britons were not considered a threat (and the Anglo Saxons had subjugated them) or that the Anglo Saxons were there with the Britons permission and this suggests a more peaceful co existence interpretation of the data.DNA evidence shows that the lack of presence of a gene in most areas of Britain which is prevalent in most areas of Frisia and Schleswig is suggestive of a cultural assimilation.3 However, considering that since the arrival of the Anglo Saxons, Britain has had a large number of different genes introduced by other migrating people. The Vikings and the Normans are also likely to give different genes to the native country. More recently with the levels of immigration the genes are considerably more mixed up than one would expect. Oxygen isotope analysis shows similar problems with finding individuals from the Anglo Saxon homelands showing most of the teeth found at Wes t Heslerton were native to Britain. 4 This clearly contradicts other theories, however one has no idea about the make up of society at that point, and there can potentially be a large number of unfound Anglo Saxon settlements which might prove otherwise.A better interpretation suggests that mercenaries were initially invited into the country to provide protection. In concordance with their war like nature they start their rebellion (Hensons date). However, at this stage they are not strong enough and are forced out of the country. Roger of Wendover suggests that this occurs in around 435. In around 440 the Saxons return in greater numbers and begin to make advances through the country. For the next fifty years there is a constant battle for control of the island, with Ambrosius taking control of the fight in 444. The advance of the Saxons is stopped in around 500 with the Battle of Badon hill (which has been attributed to this Arthur figure Arthur in this case is used as a front fo r the real successful British ruler around this time).Following this there is a time of peace where Arthur rules the island and is the last point of native rule. After Arthurs death, the resistance to the Anglo Saxons starts failing when tribal politics begin to become an issue and at the least co operation begins to stop. Not surprisingly, the Anglo Saxons start to make large advances through the country. By 575 the east is secure and movement through the west is still progressing. Using the Settlement evidence found at West Heslerton which like many other Anglo Saxon settlements does not have any form of defence of palisade suggests that the Anglo Saxons felt secure in this area. The warriors are followed by a large number of economic migrants which set up large trade routes between Britain and their former native countries. This accounts for the density in material which is found. The Anglo Saxons have control of Britain until 1066.In conclusion, it can be seen that the picture concerning Britain during this time is much more complex than merely invasion or migration. It is a case of tribal politics, a falling Empire and a vacuous people who have little culture and even less ability of defence. The inviting of Anglo Saxons to act as mercenaries spells the end of Romano Britain. However, even with all modern technology, techniques and expertise, there is still a lot more myth and speculation concerning this time period than fact, and that is probably going to be the case forever. Kemble in 1849 said in despair from what has preceded it will be inferred that I look upon the details of the German conquests in England as irrevocably lost to us.5

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Close the Gap on Prefixes and Suffixes

Close the Gap on Prefixes and Suffixes Close the Gap on Prefixes and Suffixes Close the Gap on Prefixes and Suffixes By Mark Nichol Thanks to widespread confusion about the correct treatment of prefixes and suffixes, syllables and words attached before or after root words, many people persist in inserting hyphens more frequently than necessary. Essentially, however, hyphens seldom belong in prefixed and suffixed words: Prefixes and root words are almost always combined without hyphens (prepaid, nonprofit, posttraumatic). Exceptions include when the root word is a proper noun (un-Christian, anti-Semitic) or a number (â€Å"pre-2010 models†), or when the first letter of the root word and the prefix’s last letter are the same (anti-intellectual, co-opt). Repetitions of consonants, however (nonnative), are not excepted. Some prefixes, like vice, unfortunately, are used indiscriminately; they may be disconnected (â€Å"vice president†), hyphenated (vice-regent), or closed up (viceregal). And then there are antonyms styled at odds with each other, such as on-screen and offscreen. (Easy solution: Reconcile them one way or the other.) Other idiosyncratic instances of hyphenation include ambiguous treatments like re-cover in the sense of â€Å"to cover again,† rather than â€Å"to retrieve,† mid before a numbered century (â€Å"mid-twenty-first century† or â€Å"mid-21st century†), and non attached to an phrasal adjective (â€Å"non-meat-eating†). A common error is to refer to very large amounts of money with a phrase like â€Å"multi-billion-dollar budget† or, worse, â€Å"multi-billion dollar budget.† However, words prefixed by multi need no hyphen: â€Å"multibillion-dollar budget.† The en dash, a hyphen on steroids, is used when the link must carry more weight: when prefixes and suffixes are linked to permanent open compounds to form phrasal adjectives. Examples include â€Å"postCivil War era† and â€Å"high schoolage drivers.† Suffixes are rarely hyphenated, either (airborne, lifelike, nationwide). Some sources suggest hyphenating borne, like, and wide to a word three or more syllables long, but it’s not necessary; communitywide, for example, may look cumbersome, but it’s best to be consistent. However, words ending in l, and most proper nouns, retain a hyphen when linked to like, and proper nouns linked to wide are always hyphenated. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:35 Synonyms for â€Å"Look†In Search of a 4-Dot Ellipsis25 Idioms About Bread and Dessert